The research paper entitled "Climate response to changes to atmospheric carbon dioxide
and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks"
authored by the co-directors of ICU
Climate research consortium won the prestigious World Meteorological Organization's (WMO)
Norbert Gerbier MUMM International Award for 2014. This paper was published 2012 in the
Environmental Research Letters, Volume 7.


  • K. Caldeira and G. Bala, 2016: Reflecting on 50 years of geoengineering research Earth’s Future, DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000454 .

  • A. Modak, G. Bala, L. Cao, and K. Caldeira, 2016: Why must a solar forcing be larger than a CO2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change? Environmental Research Letters,, doi:10.1088/1748- 9326/11/4/044013

  • L. Cao, Lei Duan, G. Bala and K. Caldeira, 2016: Simulated long-term climate response to idealized solar geoengineering, Geophys. Res. Lett., DOI:10.1002/2016GL068079

  • 2015:

  • N. Devaraju, G. Bala, K. Caldeira and R. Nemani, 2015: A model based investigation of the relative importance of CO2-fertilization, climate warming, nitrogen deposition and land use change on the global terrestrial carbon cycle in the historical period, Clim Dyn, 1-20, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2830-8

  • L. Cao, G. Bala and K. Caldeira, 2015: Simulated long-term climate response to idealized solar geoengineering (submitted to GRL)

  • L. Cao, Lei Duan, G. Bala and K. Caldeira, 2015: Fast and slow climate responses to CO2 and solar forcing: A linear multivariate regression model characterizing transient climate change Journal of Geophysical Research, 1-17, doi:10.1002/2015JD023901.

  • 2014:

  • Kalidindi, S., G. Bala, A. Modak, and K.Caldeira, 2014: Modeling of solar radiation management: a comparison of simulations using reduced solar constant and stratospheric sulphate aerosols. Clim Dyn, 1-17, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2240 3.

  • 2013:

  • G. Bala, N. Devaraju, R. K. Chaturvedi, K. Caldeira, R. Nemani, 2013: Nitrogen deposition: how important is it for global terrestrial carbon uptake? Biogeosciences, 10, 7147-7160, doi:10.5194/bg-10-7147-2013.

  • Caldeira, K., G. Bala, and L. Cao, 2013: The Science of Geoengineering. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 41, 231-256, doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105548.

  • Bala, G., S. Krishna, D. Narayanappa, L. Cao, K. Caldeira, and R. Nemani, 2013: An estimate of equilibrium sensitivity of global terrestrial carbon cycle using NCAR CCSM4. Climate Dynamics, 40, 1671-1686, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1495-9.

  • Davis, S. J., L. Cao, K. Caldeira, and M. I. Hoffert, 2013: Rethinking wedges. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 011001, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/011001.

  • 2012:

  • Cao, L., G. Bala, and K. Caldeira, 2012: Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks. Environmental Research Letters, 7, 034015, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034015.

  • Ban-Weiss, G. A., L. Cao, G. Bala, and K. Caldeira, 2012: Dependence of climate forcing and response on the altitude of black carbon aerosols. Climate Dynamics, 38, 897-911, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1052-y.

  • Pongratz, J., D. B. Lobell, L. Cao, and K. Caldeira, 2012: Crop yields in a geoengineered climate. Nature Climate Change, 2, 101-105, doi:10.1038/nclimate1373.

  • 2011:

  • Devaraju, N., L. Cao, G. Bala, K. Caldeira, and R. Nemani, 2011: A model investigation of vegetation-atmosphere interactions on a millennial timescale. Biogeosciences, 8, 3677-3686, doi:10.5194/bg-8-3677-2011.

  • Bala, G., K. Caldeira, R. Nemani, L. Cao, G. Ban-Weiss, and H.-J. Shin, 2011: Albedo enhancement of marine clouds to counteract global warming: impacts on the hydrological cycle. Climate Dynamics, 37, 915-931, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0868-1.

  • Ban-Weiss, G. A., G. Bala, L. Cao, J. Pongratz, and K. Caldeira, 2011: Climate forcing and response to idealized changes in surface latent and sensible heat. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 034032, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034032.

  • Cao, L., G. Bala, and K. Caldeira, 2011: Why is there a short-term increase in global precipitation in response to diminished CO2 forcing? Geophysical Research Letters, 38, doi:10.1029/2011GL046713.

  • 2010:

  • Cao, L., G Bala, K Caldeira, R Nemani, and G Ban-Weiss, 2010: Importance of carbon dioxide physiological forcing to future climate change. PNAS, 107, 9513, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0913000107.

  • Cao, L., and K Caldeira, 2010: Atmospheric carbon dioxide removal: long-term consequences and commitment. Environmental Research Letters, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024011.

  • Cao, L., and K Caldeira, 2010: Can ocean iron fertilization mitigate ocean acidification? Climatic Change, Springer Netherlands, 99, 1-2, doi: 10.1007/s10584-010-9799-4.

  • 2009:

  • Bala, G., K Caldeira, R Nemani, 2009: Fast versus slow response in climate change: implications for the global hydrological cycle. Climate Dynamics, 35, 423-434.

  • Cao, L., G Bala, K Caldeira, R Nemani, and G Ban-Weiss, 2009: Climate response to physiological forcing of carbon dioxide simulated by the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1) and Community Land Model (CLM3.0). Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L10402, doi:10.1029/2009GL037724.

  • Matthews, D.L., L Cao, K Caldeira, 2009: Sensitivity of ocean acidification to geoengineered climate stabilization . Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L10706, doi:10.1029/2009GL037488/.